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Breast Cancer If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer, it's important to understand some basics: What is breast cancer and how does it happen? Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Less commonly, breast cancer can begin in the stromal tissues, which include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes, small organs that filter out foreign substances in the body. If cancer cells get into the lymph nodes, they then have a pathway into other parts of the body. The breast cancer’s stage refers to how far the cancer cells have spread beyond the original tumor. Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic abnormality (a “mistake” in the genetic material). However, only 5-10% of cancers are due to an abnormality inherited from your mother or father. Instead, 85-90% of breast cancers are due to genetic abnormalities that happen as a result of the aging process and the “wear and tear” of life in general. There are steps every person can take to help the body stay as healthy as possible, such as eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, limiting alcohol, and exercising regularly. While these may have some impact on your risk of getting breast cancer, they cannot eliminate the risk. Developing breast cancer is not your or anyone's fault. Feeling guilty, or telling yourself that breast cancer happened because of something you or anyone else did, is not productive. Symptoms of Breast Cancer Initially, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. A lump may be too small for you to feel or to cause any unusual changes you can notice on your own. Often, an abnormal area turns up on a screening mammogram (X-ray of the breast), which leads to further testing. In some cases, however, the first sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast that you or your doctor can feel. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be cancer. But sometimes cancers can be tender, soft, and rounded. So it's important to have anything unusual checked by your doctor. According to the American Cancer Society, any of the following unusual changes in the breast can be a symptom of breast cancer: • swelling of all or part of the breast • skin irritation or dimpling • breast pain • nipple pain or the nipple turning inward • redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin • a nipple discharge other than breast milk • a lump in the underarm area These changes also can be signs of less serious conditions that are not cancerous, such as an infection or a cyst. It’s important to get any breast changes checked out promptly by a doctor. Breast cancer treatment in Jalndhar
Head And Neck Oncology Commando's operation Hemiglossectomy Laryngectomy Total Thyroidectomy / Parathyroid Surgery Neck Dissections Reconstruction / Rotation, Free Flaps Superficial & Total Parotidectomy Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts within the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands. Symptoms may include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, trouble swallowing, or a change in the voice. There may also be unusual bleeding, facial swelling, or trouble breathing.
Ovarian Cysts The ovaries are the very important part of a female body. They are a in a pair in the female reproductive system and are located one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs and are also the main source of the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. They influence the development of a woman's breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac, and can be located anywhere in the body. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. Different types of cysts can form in the ovary. Many cysts are completely normal. These are called functional cysts and these are very commonly found. They occur during egg formation. Functional cysts normally shrink over time, usually in few months. If you have a functional cyst, you may need a check-up once again in 1 to 2 months to make sure that the cyst has become smaller or has it completely resolved. These cysts are almost never associated with cancer. But if you are menopausal and are not having periods, you will not have functional cysts. The other types of cysts are chocolate cyst, Simple cyst, or dermoid cyst. Many women have ovarian cysts without having any symptoms. In some the cyst will cause these problems: Pressure, fullness, or pain in the abdomen Pain during sexual intercourse Painful menstrual periods and abnormal bleeding Nausea or vomiting To identify the type of cyst, the following tests are needed: 1. Pelvic ultrasound 2. CA 125 blood test- It is a tumour marker and is often elevated in ovarian cancer. The ovarian cysts can be treated in the following ways- 1. Wait and watch- The patient waits and gets re-examined in one to three months to see if the cyst has changed in size. This is a common treatment option for women who are in their childbearing years, have no symptoms, and have a simple cyst less than 5 cm size. 2. Surgery- If the cyst does not go away after few menstrual cycles, has become larger, or looks unusual on the ultrasound, causes pain, or the woman is postmenopausal, then there is a need to remove it. There are two surgical methods- Laparoscopy-if the cyst is small and looks non-cancerous on the ultrasound, CA-125 is normal then laparoscopy can be done. This procedure is done under general anaesthesia. Very small incisions of 0.5 to 1.0 cm are needed in this surgery. Open Surgery-if the cyst is solid and looks suspicious, then open surgery is needed. The incision in open surgery is quite big. Gynecologist in Jalandhar near bus stand list of gynaecologist doctors in jalandhar
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