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Risk Factors OF TESTICULAR CANCER Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy.
Targeted drug therapy for brain cancer Targeted cancer therapies are drugs or other substances that can focus on certain abnormalities which exist within the cells of the cancer. They block the abnormalities, by interfering with specific molecules involved in the growth, progression and spread of cancer, causing the cancer cells to die. In general the drugs work to: block or turn off chemical signals for cancer cell growth change processes within the cancer cells stop making new blood vessels to feed the cancer cells trigger the immune system to kill cancer cells One such targeted drug therapy is bevacizumab (Avastin). It is used to treat a kind f brain cancer called a glioblastoma. Administered intravenously, it prevents the formation of new blood cells, cuts off the supply of blood to the tumour, resulting in the death of the tumour cells. Another such targeted drug is called everolimus (Afinitor). It is used to treat a kind of benign brain tumour affecting people with tuberous sclerosis. It blocks one of the body’s enzymes which ordinarily aids the growth of cancer cells. Brain cancer treatment in Jalandhar
Breast cancer treatment In Jalandhar 1. Breast cancer treatment options depending on the location and size of the tumor in his chest. 2. Various methods of treatment of breast cancer Breast cancer treatment can be local or systemic. Radiation therapy and surgery is the treatment of breast cancer. Local breast cancer treatment that is used to destroy, remove or control the growth of cancer cells. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy is a systemic treatment. Systemic treatment is targeted to control or destroy cancer cells throughout the body. Various forms of breast cancer treatment can be determined at the same time or one after the other. The operation is one of the treatment of breast cancer is the most common. Many types of surgical interventions can be used. Surgical intervention to remove the breast is called mastectomy. Surgery is done to remove the cancer cells without affecting the size of the breast is called breast conserving surgery or breast-saving. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy: The breast cancer treatment specialist using high energy radiation to kill cancer cells and to stop them from growing. Chemotherapeutic breast cancer treatment: The Specialist using different types of drugs or combination from different drugs to kill cancer cells or to stop them from growing. Drugs given in cycles; time of treatment followed by a longer recovery period followed by another breast cancer treatment. Hormone therapy for breast cancer treatment: It used to stop the growth of cancer cells that affects the female hormones. Breast cancer treatment may include the use of drugs, which changed the way hormones work or surgery to remove the ovaries produce female hormones. Breast Cancer Specialist in Jalandhar
Chemotheraphy Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs that can destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division in various possible ways, e.g. with the duplication of DNA or the separation of newly formed chromosomes. Most forms of chemotherapy target all rapidly dividing cells and are not specific to cancer cells, although some degree of specificity may come from the inability of many cancer cells to repair DNA damage, while normal cells generally can. Hence, chemotherapy has the potential to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues that have a high replacement rate. These cells usually repair themselves after chemotherapy. Some drugs work better together than alone, so two or more drugs are often given at the same time. This is called combination chemotherapy, most chemotherapy regimens are given in a combination. The treatment of some leukaemias and lymphomas requires the use of high-dose chemotherapy, and total body irradiation (TBI). Chemotherapy treatment in Jalandhar Chemotherapy in Jalandhar
Just after your Cancer surgery You are likely to be sleepy. Exactly how sleepy you are and how quickly you recover depends on the type of operation, and the type and length of your anesthetic. People vary in how they feel straight after a general anesthetic. Some people feel fine but others feel • groggy • cold • sick • a bit confused • sad • anxious • tearful When you first go back to the ward the nurses carry on checking you – at first this is every 15 minutes. They gradually check you less often as you recover, so that within a few hours it is every 4 hours. The checks include your blood pressure, pulse, temperature and your wound. You have a dressing over your wound. You might have some tubes near it to drain any fluid that builds up. You have a drip giving you fluids into a vein until you can eat and drink again. You might also have a tube in your bladder called a catheter. This stays in until you can get up to pass urine normally. Pain control Pain can usually be very well controlled after surgery. Your doctors and nurses give you painkillers by drip or as tablets or liquids if you need them. For some operations you might have an injection of anesthetic into nearby nerves (a nerve block). This can work very well to control pain. You might also have a small pump attached to a drip so that you can give your own pain medicine as you need it. It is important that pain is well controlled, so do tell your nurse if you don’t think it is working well enough. As well as making you more comfortable, the painkillers also help you to move around and breathe properly, which helps with your recovery. Any pain gradually gets better as your wound heals. Possible problems after surgery There are some possible problems after any surgery. These include • wound infection • chest infection • blood clots • fluid collection around the wound Your doctors and nurses do their best to prevent you getting these complications. They ask you to help yourself too. Getting up and moving around as soon as possible after your operation helps to prevent chest infections and blood clots. A physiotherapist might also teach you breathing exercises to help prevent chest infections. To help prevent blood clots they teach you leg exercises and give you elastic stockings to wear while you are in bed. Your nurses might give you an injection just under the skin to minimise the risk of blood clots. After some types of operation, you might carry on having these injections for 4 weeks. Before you go home, your nurse might teach you to do these injections yourself. Or a district nurse might come to your house to do them. You might have antibiotics to help prevent infection. You may have them through your drip at first. But once you are eating and drinking, you can take them as tablets. You might also have drainage tubes close to the wound to stop fluid collecting around the operation site. This is important because, as well as being uncomfortable or painful, fluid that doesn't drain away can become infected. Below is a short video showing breathing and circulation exercises after surgery. Click on the arrow to watch it. Eating and drinking again When you can eat and drink again depends on the type of operation you had. Most people can drink and then eat on the day of their operation. After some operations, such as bowel surgery, you might not be able to eat until the next day. This is because your bowel takes time to start working again. When you do begin eating and drinking you might need to start slowly. Your nurses may suggest that you start with sips of water as soon as you are fully awake and then build up gradually. They will tell you when and what you can eat and drink. They might give you a carbohydrate rich drink to give you energy and help your recovery. Getting up and about How quickly you can get out of bed and move around depends on the type of operation you had. For most operations you get up the same day or the next day. Your nurses and the physiotherapist tell you when you can get up. They help you if you can't move around easily by yourself. It is good to get moving as soon as possible. This helps you recover and reduces the chances of other problems, such as a chest infection and blood clots. Seeing people Seeing people after an operation can be tiring. But as soon as you feel up to it, you can have visitors. It might help to tell people beforehand whether you are likely to have a drip or any other tubes so that they know what to expect. This is especially important for children. cancer specialist doctor in Punjab
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